C++ Interview Questions and Answers -3
What is the difference between an object and a class?
Classes and objects are separate but related concepts. Every object belongs to a class and every class contains one or more related objects.
– A Class is static. All of the attributes of a class are fixed before, during, and after the execution of a program. The attributes of a class don’t change.
– The class to which an object belongs is also (usually) static. If a particular object belongs to a certain class at the time that it is created then it almost certainly will still belong to that class right up until the time that it is destroyed.
– An Object on the other hand has a limited lifespan. Objects are created and eventually destroyed. Also during that lifetime, the attributes of the object may undergo significant change.
Suppose that data is an array of 1000 integers. Write a single function call that will sort the 100 elements data  through data .
quicksort ((data + 222), 100);
What is a class?
Class is a user-defined data type in C++. It can be created to solve a particular kind of problem. After creation the user need not know the specifics of the working of a class.
What is friend function?
As the name suggests, the function acts as a friend to a class. As a friend of a class, it can access its private and protected members. A friend function is not a member of the class. But it must be listed in the class definition.
Which recursive sorting technique always makes recursive calls to sort subarrays that are about half size of the original array?
Mergesort always makes recursive calls to sort subarrays that are about half size of the original array, resulting in O(n log n) time.
What is abstraction?
Abstraction is of the process of hiding unwanted details from the user.
What are virtual functions?
A virtual function allows derived classes to replace the implementation provided by the base class. The compiler makes sure the replacement is always called whenever the object in question is actually of the derived class, even if the object is accessed by a base pointer rather than a derived pointer. This allows algorithms in the base class to be replaced in the derived class, even if users don’t know about the derived class.
What is the difference between an external iterator and an internal iterator? Describe an advantage of an external iterator.
An internal iterator is implemented with member functions of the class that has items to step through. .An external iterator is implemented as a separate class that can be “attach” to the object that has items to step through. .An external iterator has the advantage that many difference iterators can be active simultaneously on the same object.
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